Stylistically, although writers are critical of colonialism and seek to break with the European canon and establish autonomous forms, their works reflect the dual legacy of European cultures and precolonial African modes of expression. Many reasons are adduced for the continued proliferation of writing in colonial languages decades after independence in Africa. With underdeveloped publishing networks, a limited audience for writing in indigenous languages, and harsher censorship at home than abroad, most influential works are published in Western metropolises or by subsidiaries of metropolitan publishing houses in European languages. Although it is natural for Western scholars to categorize the literature according to the European languages in which they were written e.
Bring fact-checked results to the top of your browser search. This persistent scrutiny was the product of an acute sense of change. They have made and make it day by day. Abroad these energies expressed themselves in the growth of the British Empire.
At home they were accompanied by rapid social change and fierce intellectual controversy. The juxtaposition of this new industrial wealth with a new kind of urban poverty is only one of the paradoxes that characterize this long and diverse period.
In religion the climax of the Evangelical revival coincided with an unprecedentedly severe set of challenges to faith. The idealism and transcendentalism of Romantic thought were challenged by the growing prestige of empirical science and utilitarian moral philosophya process that encouraged more-objective modes in literature.
Realism would be one of the great artistic movements of the era. In politics a widespread commitment to economic and personal freedom was, nonetheless, accompanied by a steady growth in the power of the state. Most fundamentally of all, the rapid change that many writers interpreted as progress inspired in others a fierce nostalgia.
Enthusiastic rediscoveries of ancient GreeceElizabethan England, and, especially, the Middle Ages by writers, artists, architects, and designers made this age of change simultaneously an age of active and determined historicism. John Stuart Mill caught this contradictory quality, with characteristic acuteness, in his essays on Jeremy Bentham and Samuel Taylor Coleridge A similar sense of sharp controversy is given by Carlyle in Sartor Resartus — An eccentric philosophical fiction in the tradition of Swift and Sterne, the book argues for a new mode of spirituality in an age that Carlyle himself suggests to be one of mechanism.
Coleridge died inDe Quincey in Wordsworth succeeded Southey as poet laureate in and held the post until his own death seven years later. Posthumous publication caused some striking chronological anomalies.
Despite this persistence, critics of the s felt that there had been a break in the English literary tradition, which they identified with the death of Byron in The deaths of Austen in and Scott in should perhaps have been seen as even more significant, for the new literary era has, with justification, been seen as the age of the novel.
More than 60, works of prose fiction were published in Victorian Britain by as many as 7, novelists. It was challenged in the s by the advent of serialization in magazines and by the publication of novels in page monthly parts.
But only in the s did the three-decker finally yield to the modern single-volume format. On the strength of this volume, Dickens contracted to write a historical novel in the tradition of Scott eventually published as Barnaby Rudge in By chance his gifts were turned into a more distinctive channel.
In February he agreed to write the text for a series of comic engravings. The unexpected result was The Pickwick Papers —37one of the funniest novels in English literature.
By Julysales of the monthly installments exceeded 40, copies.
Serial publication encouraged the use of multiple plot and required that each episode be individually shaped. At the same time it produced an unprecedentedly close relationship between author and reader.
Part dramatist, part journalist, part mythmaker, and part wit, Dickens took the picaresque tradition of Smollett and Fielding and gave it a Shakespearean vigour and variety. Early Victorian England and Charles DickensClifton Fadiman examining the inspiration Charles Dickens's work took from the milieu of Victorian England, with its startling contrasts of morality and hypocrisy, splendour and squalor, prosperity and poverty.
His early novels have been attacked at times for sentimentality, melodrama, or shapelessness. They are now increasingly appreciated for their comic or macabre zest and their poetic fertility.
He thenceforth combined his gift for vivid caricature with a stronger sense of personality, designed his plots more carefully, and used symbolism to give his books greater thematic coherence. Of the masterpieces of the next decade, David Copperfield —50 uses the form of a fictional autobiography to explore the great Romantic theme of the growth and comprehension of the self.
Bleak House —53 addresses itself to law and litigiousness; Hard Times is a Carlylean defense of art in an age of mechanism; and Little Dorrit —57 dramatizes the idea of imprisonment, both literal and spiritual.
Two great novels, both involved with issues of social class and human worth, appeared in the s: Great Expectations —61 and Our Mutual Friend — His final book, The Mystery of Edwin Drood published posthumously,was left tantalizingly uncompleted at the time of his death.
Corney, illustration for Oliver Twist by Charles Dickens, These are some of the many databases available to you as a member of Middletown Thrall Library: Artemis (now Gale Literary Sources) Searches the following databases (described below): Literature Criticism Online, Literature for Students, Literature Resource Center, and Something about the Author.
The Other Victorians: A Study of Sexuality and Pornography in Mid-nineteenth-century England [Steven Marcus] on benjaminpohle.com *FREE* shipping on qualifying offers.
Taking as his point of departure the authors, the audience, and the texts of Victorian writings on sex in general and of Victorian . The most comprehensive and authoritative study of the Newgate novels and their social, political, and literary contexts is Hollingsworth , to which all other work mentioned in this section is indebted.
Another very useful and informative account of the history and contexts of Newgate narratives. English literature - The post-Romantic and Victorian eras: Self-consciousness was the quality that John Stuart Mill identified, in , as “the daemon of the men of genius of our time.” Introspection was inevitable in the literature of an immediately Post-Romantic period, and the age itself was as prone to self-analysis as were its individual authors.
English Literature Essays, literary criticism on many authors, links to internet resources and bookshop. These are some of the many databases available to you as a member of Middletown Thrall Library: Artemis (now Gale Literary Sources) Searches the following databases (described below): Literature Criticism Online, Literature for Students, Literature Resource Center, and Something about the Author.