British Dictionary definitions for nature nature noun the fundamental qualities of a person or thing; identity or essential character often capital, esp when personified the whole system of the existence, arrangement, forces, and events of all physical life that are not controlled by man all natural phenomena and plant and animal life, as distinct from man and his creations a wild primitive state untouched by man or civilization natural unspoilt scenery or countryside disposition or temperament tendencies, desires, or instincts governing behaviour the normal biological needs or urges of the body sort; kind; character the real appearance of a person or thinga painting very true to nature accepted standards of basic morality or behaviour biology the complement of genetic material that partly determines the structure of an organism; genotypeCompare nurture def.
The aim of the practical was to observe territorial behavior among human beings and explore it in relation to animals in the comparative psychological perspective. It has to be defended through actual aggression or the threat of it.
Territoriality has been observed to exist among certain animal species like birds, insects, mammals and vertebrates. Therefore, a parallel with man has had to be established because territoriality has been seen to exist in man; both as an individual and a group.
The major characteristic of territoriality as observed by comparative psychologists like Lorenz, Tinbergen, and ethnologists like Eibl-Ebesfeldt, is that an animal must be aggressive towards conspecifics.
Through studies and observations, the authors have come to the conclusion that the territorial behavior possesses several functions in the evolution and preservation of species.
In general it has been suggested that territoriality saves the purposes of distributing or spreading the animals over a large area resulting in the proper utilization of feeding resources, to enable safe and undisturbed reproductive behavior, for example, territoriality in birds ensures that they do not build nests too close together.
And a last function of territoriality is said to be reduction of aggression in the animal species which have a high level of it. The subjects consisted of the University of Zambia students who read in the University library.
Eight subjects were observed.
The apparatus used in the experiment consisted of a pen and paper for recording the sitting arrangements and signs of territorial behavior of the subjects. O represents Observer S represents Subject Initially, O goes into the library and sits on one of the tables. After a while, O moves to a table which has almost all the seats full and sits next to S and notes the reaction of S; moving chair, objects etc.
Then especially during a different time when there are many empty seats; 12 to 13 hours when many subjects go for lunch, O sits next or adjacent to a subject and notes his reaction. The tables are made out of a combination of several smaller tables which provide a comfortable space for writing and reading for an individual student.
When a student sits down, he normally or always defines his territory by placing his books all over the rectangular spacing. On 31st December at 9 hours, I was seated on a desk in the reference deck. Six students got their writing pads and apparently went away to attend class lectures.
While they were away, three students came looking for a table where they could read. Each one of them came, looked around and went away to another deck. Despite the fact that the owners of the books were away, the three could not occupy their desks.
From this observation, we can say that objects act as very strong definitions of territory for human beings. On deck 14 psychology 23rd DecemberI sat down to read beside a female student.
Immediately I sat on the chair next to her, she pulled towards her the edges of books which were protruding into my space. She piled her books on the table, expecting to return and resume reading after supper.
When she returned, the table was occupied by three Asian students.Wolves have litters of same-age puppies which the mother leaves in the care of another adult while she hunts; elk give birth to calves which are able to stand up and follow the herd within a matter of minutes.
Primates, including human beings, have one offspring at a time which the mother carries with her while she seeks food or works, often sharing care with rich networks of relatives and.
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