The English established additional settlements in Newfoundlandbeginning in  and the Thirteen Colonies to the south were founded soon after. More importantly, the Quebec Act afforded Quebec special autonomy and rights of self-administration at a time that the Thirteen Colonies were increasingly agitating against British rule. The Proclamation and the Quebec Act in turn angered many residents of the Thirteen Colonies, further fuelling anti-British sentiment in the years prior to the American Revolution. Many moved to Canada, particularly Atlantic Canada, where their arrival changed the demographic distribution of the existing territories.
Geography[ change change source ] Canada is the second largest country in the world in land area, after Russia. It is next to the PacificArcticand Atlantic Oceans. It is the only country in the world to be next to three oceans at once. It has six time zones.
The provinces are between the 45th and 60th parallels of latitude, and the territories are to the north of the 60th parallel of latitude.
Most large cities in Canada are in the southern part of the country, including Toronto, Vancouver, and Montreal. There are very few people living in the northern part of Canada. Canada extends from the west coast, across the prairies and central Canada, to the Atlantic provinces.
In the north there are three territories, stretching between Alaska and Greenland: Pierre and Miquelon — a small group of islands off the southern coast off the island of Newfoundland.
The geography of Canada is very different from place to place, from high alpine areas in the west, flat grasslands and prairies in the centre, and ancient shield rocks in the east.
Canada contains some of the very last untouched boreal forest in the world. The Canadian Shield is a vast area of ancient Pre-Cambrian rocks lying in an arc around Hudson Baycovering more than one third of Canada's land area.
This is a unique land of lakes, bogs, swamps, trees, and rocks. It is a terrain that is very dangerous and difficult to traverse cross country because of lakes, bogs, swamps, trees, and rocks.
History[ change change source ] Indigenous native people lived in what is now Canada for thousands of years before the first Europeans arrived.
They are known as the First Nations and the Inuit people. Together, these three groups are called "Indigenous," "Aboriginal," or "First Peoples. They did not stay long, however. In the early 16th century, Europeans started exploring Canada's eastern coast, beginning with John Cabot from England inand later Jacques Cartier in from France.
Alexander Mackenzie later reached the Pacific coast over land, where captains James Cook and George Vancouver went by sea.
The Europeans also traded beaver furs to the First Nations. Parts of Canada were settled by France, and parts by Great Britain.
They were called United Empire Loyalists. During the War ofthe United States tried to conquer Canada but were defeated. On July 1,Canada was united under a federal government. Macdonald was the first prime minister. Manitobathe Yukon territory, and the Northwest Territories became part of Canada in British Columbia joined inand Prince Edward Island in A railroad across the country, the Canadian Pacific Railwayfinished inmade it easier for Canadians to move to the west.
Many Europeans came to the prairiesso Alberta and Saskatchewan became provinces in More Canadians died in this war than any other war. Canada became better known as a country after its success in capturing Vimy Ridge from the Germans in France in Women were given the right to vote by the end of the war, partly because of the help they gave making weapons while the men fought in Europe.
InCanada became fully independent.
Then the government of Canada made all decisions about Canada. A Canadian crew during the battle of Normandy in June Canadians also fought in World War II. The Dieppe Raid in went very badly and most of the soldiers were killed, wounded, or taken prisoner.
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