This is especially true of the United Kingdom because its history has been very different from most other nations and, as a result, its political system is very different from most other nations too. Like its unwritten constitution, the British state evolved over time. We probably need to start in when William the Conqueror from Normandy invaded what we now call England, defeated the Anglo-Saxon King Harold and established a Norman dynasty.
Though she takes little direct part in government, the Crown remains the fount in which ultimate executive power over government lies. These powers are known as royal prerogative and can be used for a vast amount of things, such as the issue or withdrawal of passports, to the dismissal of the Prime Minister or even the declaration of war.
The powers are delegated from the monarch personally, in the name of the Crown, and can be handed to various ministers, or other officers of the Crown, and can purposely bypass the consent of Parliament.
In practice, this means that the leader of the political party with an absolute majority of seats in the House of Commons is chosen to be the Prime Minister.
If no party has an absolute majority, the leader of the largest party is given the first opportunity to form a coalition. The Prime Minister then selects the other Ministers which make up the Government and act as political heads of the various Government Departments.
About twenty of the most senior government ministers make up the Cabinet and approximately ministers in total comprise the government. In accordance with constitutional conventionall ministers within the government are either Members of Parliament or peers in the House of Lords.
As in some other parliamentary systems of government especially those based upon the Westminster Systemthe executive called "the government" is drawn from and is answerable to Parliament - a successful vote of no confidence will force the government either to resign or to seek a parliamentary dissolution and a general election.
In practice, members of parliament of all major parties are strictly controlled by whips who try to ensure they vote according to party policy.
If the government has a large majority, then they are very unlikely to lose enough votes to be unable to pass legislation. The Prime Minister being the de facto leader of the UK, he or she exercises executive functions that are nominally vested in the sovereign by way of the Royal Prerogatives.
Historically, the British monarch was the sole source of executive powers in the government.
However, following the lead of the Hanoverian monarchs, an arrangement of a "Prime Minister" chairing and leading the Cabinet began to emerge. Over time, this arrangement became the effective executive branch of government, as it assumed the day-to-day functioning of the British government away from the sovereign.
Theoretically, the Prime Minister is primus inter pares i. While the Prime Minister is the senior Cabinet Minister, they are theoretically bound to make executive decisions in a collective fashion with the other Cabinet ministers.
Cabinet meetings are typically held weekly, while Parliament is in session. Government departments and the Civil Service[ edit ] The Government of the United Kingdom contains a number of ministries known mainly, though not exclusively as departments, e.
These are politically led by a Government Minister who is often a Secretary of State and member of the Cabinet.
He or she may also be supported by a number of junior Ministers. In practice, several government departments and Ministers have responsibilities that cover England alone, with devolved bodies having responsibility for Scotland, Wales and Northern Ireland, for example - the Department of Healthor responsibilities that mainly focus on England such as the Department for Education.
Its constitutional role is to support the Government of the day regardless of which political party is in power.
Unlike some other democracies, senior civil servants remain in post upon a change of Government. Administrative management of the Department is led by a head civil servant known in most Departments as a Permanent Secretary. The majority of the civil service staff in fact work in executive agencieswhich are separate operational organisations reporting to Departments of State.
This is because most Government Departments have headquarters in and around the former Royal Palace Whitehall. Devolved national administrations[ edit ] Main article: Scottish Government The Scottish Government is responsible for all issues that are not explicitly reserved to the United Kingdom Parliament at Westminsterby the Scotland Act ; including NHS Scotlandeducationjusticerural affairs, and transport.
The First Minister then appoints their Ministers now known as Cabinet Secretaries and junior Ministers, subject to approval by the Parliament. They are collectively known as "the Scottish Ministers".
Welsh Government The Welsh Government and the National Assembly for Wales have more limited powers than those devolved to Scotland,  although following the passing of the Government of Wales Act and the Welsh devolution referendum,the Assembly can now legislate in some areas through an Act of the National Assembly for Wales.
Following the electionWelsh Labour held exactly half of the seats in the Assembly, falling just short of an overall majority.The explanation for the unusual nature of the Lords goes back to the beginning of this essay: the British political system has evolved very slowly and peacefully and it is not totally logical or democratic.
POLITICAL STRUCTURE Romania is a democratic republic where administrative functions are shared between the president and the prime minister.
The president is elected by popular vote, and resides at Cotroceni Palace. US and British Political System essays The Constitution of the United States designates three main structures of government. The judiciary is charged with the country.
Essay about British Political Structure The architecture of British politics The british political system is made up of houses of parliament and regional assemblies in Scotland, wales and northern Ireland. where members of parliament (MP’s) discuss four main issues legislation, representation, investigation and .
Prospect Magazine - UK based political magazine focussing on British and international politics, cultural essays and arguments British Politics - the only academic journal devoted purely to the study of political issues in Britain.
The british political system is made up of houses of parliament and regional assemblies in Scotland, wales and northern Ireland. where members of parliament (MP’s) discuss four main issues legislation, representation, investigation and financing.