Animal and disease research

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Animal and disease research

Animal and disease research

General considerations Historical background Historical evidence, like that from currently developing nations, indicates that veterinary medicine originally developed in response to the needs of pastoral and agricultural man along with human medicine.

It seems likely that a veterinary profession existed throughout a large area of Africa and Asia from at least bce. Ancient Egyptian literature includes monographs on both animal and human diseases. Evidence of the parallel development of human and veterinary medicine is found in the writings of Hippocrates on medicine and of Aristotlewho described the symptomatology and therapy of the diseases of animals, including man.

Early Greek scholars, noting the similarities of medical problems among the many animal species, taught both human and veterinary medicine. In the late 4th century bce, Alexander the Great designed programs involving the study of animals, and medical writings of the Romans show that some of the most important early observations on the natural history of disease were made by men who wrote chiefly about agriculture, particularly the aspect involving domesticated animals.

Most of the earliest suggestions of relationships between human health and animal diseases were part of folklore, magic, or religious practice. From the pre-Christian Era to aboutthe distinctions between the practices of human and veterinary medicine were not clear-cut; this was especially true in the fields Animal and disease research obstetrics and orthopedics, in which animal doctors in rural areas often delivered babies and set human-bone fractures.

It was realized, however, that training in one field was inadequate for practicing in the other, and the two fields were separated. Rinderpest cattle plague was the most important livestock disease from the 5th century until control methods were developed.

Many aspects of animal diseases are best understood in terms of population or herd phenomena; for example, herds of livestock, rather than individual animals, are vaccinated against specific diseases, and housing, nutrition, and breeding practices are related to the likelihood of illness in the herd.

The work of Pasteur was of fundamental significance to general medicine and to agriculture. Veterinarians became concerned with foods of animal origin after the discovery of microorganisms and their identification with diseases in man and other animals.

Efforts were directed toward protecting humans from diseases of animal origin, primarily those transmitted through meat or dairy products. Modern principles of food hygiene, first established for the dairy and meat-packing industries in the 19th and early 20th centuries, have been generally applied to other food-related industries.

The veterinary profession, especially in Europe, assumed a major role in early food-hygiene programs. Inadequate diet claims many thousands of lives each day. When the lack of adequate food to meet present needs for an estimated world population of more than 4,, in the s is coupled with the prediction that the population may increase to 7,, by the yearit becomes obvious that animal-food supplies must be increased.

One way in which this might be accomplished is by learning to control the diseases that afflict animals throughout the world, especially in the developing nations of Asia and Africa, where the population is expanding most rapidly. Most of the information concerning animal diseases, however, applies to domesticated animals such as pigs, cattle, and sheep, which are relatively unimportant as food sources in these nations.

Remarkably little is known of the diseases of the goatthe water buffalothe camelthe elephantthe yakthe llamaor the alpaca ; all are domesticated animals upon which the economies of many developing countries depend. It is in these countries that increased animal production resulting from the development of methods for the control and eradication of diseases affecting these animals is most urgently needed.

Despite the development of various effective methods of disease control, substantial quantities of meat and milk are lost each year throughout the world. In countries in which animal-disease control is not yet adequately developed, the loss of animal protein from disease is about 30 to 40 percent of the quantity available in certain underdeveloped areas.

In addition, such countries also suffer losses resulting from poor husbandry practices. Role in human disease Animals have long been recognized as agents of human disease.

Animal Disease Research : USDA ARS

Man has probably been bitten, stung, kicked, and gored by animals for as long as he has been on earth; in addition, early man sometimes became ill or died after eating the flesh of dead animals. In more recent times, man has discovered that many invertebrate animals are capable of transmitting causative agents of disease from man to man or from other vertebrates to man.Animal Research by Disease This page serves as an index of all our scientific posts describing research which has used animal models.

We have categorised them by broad categories of diseases. Animal Health and Disease Research. The purpose of this funding is to increase animal health and disease research activities at accredited State veterinary schools or colleges or agricultural experiment stations that conduct animal health and disease research.

This grant opportunity is being offered to support research that: Promotes the general welfare through improved health and productivity of domestic livestock, poultry, aquatic animals, and other income-producing animals which are essential to the nation’s food supply and welfare of producers and.

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The Plum Island Animal Disease Center operates Biosafety Level (BSL) 2, BSL-3 Enhanced, Animal Biosafety Level 3 (ABSL-3) and Biosafety Level 3 Agriculture (BSL . Diseases & Research Basic medical research studies a particular part of the body to understand how it works, or a particular illness or condition.

Awareness of the differences between a healthy and a diseased or damaged system can give insights into how to prevent and cure illness. In addition, the lab is an integral member of the National Animal Health Laboratory Network (NAHLN), a network of diagnostic laboratories across the US that help detect nationally significant animal diseases such as influenza and Foot & Mouth Disease.

Animal Research by Disease – Speaking of Research