Political philosophy[ edit ] In her own words[ edit ] In her book It Takes a VillageClinton writes, "Most of us would describe ourselves as 'middle of the road'—liberal in some areas, conservative in others, moderate in most, neither exclusively pro- nor anti-government. So I consider myself a proud modern American progressive, and I think that's the kind of philosophy and practice that we need to bring back to American politics.
PDF Abstract The potential of wind power as a global source of electricity is assessed by using winds derived through assimilation of data from a variety of meteorological sources. The analysis indicates that a network of land-based 2. Resources in the contiguous United States, specifically in the central plain states, could accommodate as much as 16 times total current demand for electricity in the United States.
Estimates are given also for quantities of electricity that could be obtained by using a network of 3. The Global Wind Energy Council projected the possibility of a fold increase in wind-powered generation of electricity globally by ref. Their study was based on an analysis of data for the year from 7, surface meteorological stations complemented by data from stations for which vertical soundings were available.
They restricted their attention to power that could be generated by using a network of 1. The meteorological stations used in their analysis were heavily concentrated in the United States, Europe, and Southeastern Asia.
Results inferred for other regions of the world are subject as a consequence to considerable uncertainty. The GEOS-5 wind field is currently available for the period to the present March 20, with plans to extend the analysis 30 years back in time.
It is used here in a detailed study of the potential for globally distributed wind-generated electricity in We begin with a description of the methodology adopted for the present study.
The land-based turbines envisaged here are assumed to have a rated capacity of 2. In siting turbines over land, we specifically excluded densely populated regions and areas occupied by forests and environments distinguished by permanent snow and ice cover notably Greenland and Antarctica.
These constraints are then discussed, and results from the global analysis are presented followed by a more detailed discussion of results for the United States.
Methodology The GEOS-5 analysis uses a terrain-following coordinate system incorporating 72 vertical layers extending from the surface to a pressure level of 0.
Individual volume elements are defined by their horizontal boundaries latitude and longitude and the pressures at their top and bottom. The model provides 3D pressure fields at both layer centers and layer edges in addition to wind speeds meridional and zonal and temperatures at the midpoint of individual layers with a time resolution of 6 h.
The 3 lowest layers are centered at approximate altitudes of 71,and m. The 6-h data for the 3 lowest layers are used in the present analysis by using an interpolation scheme indicated as follows to estimate temperatures, pressures, and wind speeds at m, the hub height for the 2.
Knowing pressures at the lower and upper edges of individual layers together with temperatures and pressures at the midpoints of the layers, altitudes corresponding to the midpoints of the layers are calculated based on an iterative application of the barometric law by assuming a linear variation of temperature between the midpoints of individual layers.
The barometric law was also used to calculate the pressure at m. Wind speeds and temperatures at m were computed by using a cubic spline fit to data at the midpoints of the 3 lowest layers.
The efficiency with which kinetic energy intercepted at any given wind speed is converted to electricity by the turbine depends on details of the turbine design specified by what is referred to as the turbine power curve.
Typically, conversion to electricity varies as the cube of the wind speed at low wind speeds, asymptoting to a constant value for moderate to higher wind speeds, dropping to 0 at the highest wind speeds when the blades of the turbine are normally feathered to prevent damage.
For the present purpose, we chose to use power curves and technical parameters for 2. These power curves assume an air density of 1. Turbines must be spaced to minimize interference in airflow caused by interactions among individual turbines.
This process requires a compromise between the objective to maximize the power generated per turbine and the competing incentive to maximize the number of turbines sited per unit area 8.
Applying this constraint to the 2. In addition to providing an estimate for the maximum potential power generation, we propose to evaluate also the power yield expressed as a fraction of the rated power potential of the installed turbines, i.
We assume in this context that downtime for maintenance accounts for loss of only a small fraction of the total potential power that could be generated by the installed turbines reflecting the fact that maintenance is normally scheduled for periods of relatively low wind conditions This record will be used to exclude from our analysis areas classified as forested, areas occupied by permanent snow or ice, areas covered by water, and areas identified as either developed or urban.
Wind speeds are generally lower over forested areas, reflecting additional surface roughness.
Consequently, turbines would have to be raised to a higher level in these environments to provide an acceptable economic return. Although it might be reasonable for some regions and some forest types, we elected for these reasons to exclude forested areas in the present analysis.
The exclusion of water-covered areas is more problematic. Wind speeds are generally higher over water as compared with land.
However, it is more expensive to site turbines in aquatic as compared with terrestrial environments. Public pressures in opposition to the former are also generally more intense, at least in the U.
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