With some exceptions in the first third of the 20th century, economic history has been a rather marginal topic within Jewish historiography until recent years. While the scholars of the Wissenschaft des Judentums in 19th-century Germany focused on the study of Jewish intellectual history, Jewish historians in eastern Europe had a stronger interest in social and partly economic history, though often from a national, Zionist, or Marxist point of view. Since the late s, Jewish economic history has been of an increasing interest to scholars of Jewish history, characterized by attempts at a better contextualization of Jewish economic activities and the integration of these activities within general developments, as well as a turn to new approaches such as the study of consumption in the wake of cultural history or the examination of transnational phenomena. This article will cover the literature on Jewish economic history and the perception of Jewish economic activities from the Middle Ages to the 20th century.
History of Poland The first Jews arrived in the territory of modern Poland in the 10th century. Travelling along trade routes leading east to Kiev and BukharaJewish merchants, known as Radhanitescrossed Silesia.
One of them, a diplomat and merchant from the Moorish town of Tortosa in Spanish Al-Andalusknown by his Arabic name, Ibrahim ibn Yaqubwas the first chronicler to mention the Polish state ruled by Prince Mieszko I.
In the summer of or Jacob made a trade and diplomatic journey from his native Toledo in Muslim Spain to the Holy Roman Empire and to Slavic countries. It appears that Jews were then living in Gnieznoat that time the capital of the Polish kingdom of the Piast dynasty. Among the first Jews to arrive in Poland in or were those banished from Prague.
Jews came to form the backbone of the Polish economy. Mieszko III employed Jews in his mint as engravers and technical supervisors, and the coins minted during that period even bear Hebraic markings.
Another factor for the Jews to emigrate to Poland were the Magdeburg rightsor Magdeburg Law, a charter given to the Jews, among others, that specifically outlined the rights and privileges that Jews had coming into Poland.
For example, they could define their neighborhoods and economic competitors and set up monopolies. This made it very attractive for Jewish communities to pick up and move to Poland. With the consent of the class representatives and higher officials, in he issued a General Charter of Jewish Liberties, the Statute of Kaliszwhich granted all Jews the freedom of worship, trade and travel.
He inflicted heavy punishment for the desecration of Jewish cemeteries. The early Jagiellon era: In —, broad privileges were extended to Lithuanian Jews including freedom of religion and commerce on equal terms with the Christians.
However, religious persecution gradually increased, as the dogmatic clergy pushed for less official tolerance, pressured by the Synod of Constance. In pogroms took place in many towns in Silesia.
Traders and artisans jealous of Jewish prosperity, and fearing their rivalry, supported the harassment. In the statute of Warka forbade Jews the granting of loans against letters of credit or mortgage and limited their operations exclusively to loans made on security of moveable property.
Also Jews from Grodno were in this period owners of villages, manors, meadows, fish ponds and mills. However until the end of the 15th century agriculture as a source of income played only a minor role among Jewish families.
More important were crafts for the needs of both their fellow Jews and the Christian population fur making, tanning, tailoring. As a result, Jews were banished from Lower Silesia. In the same year, Alexander Jagiellon, following the example of Spanish rulers, banished the Jews from Lithuania.
For several years they took shelter in Poland until they were allowed back to the Grand Duchy of Lithuania in The latter decreed in to expel the Jews from the Grand Duchy of Lithuania when he was the Grand Duke of Lithuania but reversed his decision eight years later in after becoming King of Poland.
The next year he issued a proclamation in which he stated that a policy of tolerance befitted "kings and rulers".Contrary to many misconceptions, Jews in Poland were not simply victims of the ensuing Holocaust.
Jewish Polish soldiers were among the first, to launch armed resistance against the Nazi German forces during the Invasion of Poland. added fresh dimensions to American Judaism, and helped to promote Orthodoxy's postwar revitalization.
With its establishment in , the State of Israel became the focal point of American Jewish life and philanthropy, as well as the symbol around which American Jews united. The final lectures examine the impact of the Holocaust, as well as newer contributions being made by women thinkers.
final stage of 19th-century Jewish thought in Germany and the beginning of a new set of responses to the challenges of Jewish identity in the 20th century.
For Cohen, the essence of Judaism was ethical . The History of the Jews in Europe during the 19th and Early 20th Centuries 81 independently by a community board which also hired a rabbi if the community could afford it.
The Nazi Holocaust: 6,, Deaths. Code named "Aktion Reinhard" in honor of Heydrich, the Final Solution began in the spring as over two million Jews already in Poland were sent to be gassed as soon as the new camps became operational.
Jewish economic history comprises the economic activities of Jews, their economic and social position as a minority within the surrounding societies, and the perception of and reaction to their economic activities and position.
With some exceptions in the first third of the 20th century, economic.